Constitution, Bylaws, and Standards
of the
American Singers Club, Inc.
1992 Edition

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Foreword
History of the American Singer Club
Definition of the American Singer Canary
Constitution
Article I- Name.
Article II- Object or Purpose.
Article III- Members.
Article IV- Officers.
Article V- Membership
Article VI- Dues.
By-Laws
Article VII- Duties of National Officers.
Article VIII- Committees.
Article IX- Patronage.
Article X- Judges.
Article XI- Show Cages.
Article XII- Classification.
Article XIII- Elections.
Article XIV- Chapters.
Article XV- Amendments.
Standards of the American Singers Club, Inc.
Chapter 1- Breeding.
Chapter 2- Banding Bird with Closed Leg Band.
Chapter 3- Registration.
Chapter 4- Training.
Chapter 5- Model.
Chapter 6- Standard Classifications.
Chapter 7- Glossary.
Chapter 8- Exhibitors' Instructions.
Chapter 9- Judging School Outline.
Chapter 10- Judges' Rules.
Chapter 11- 100 Point Score Sheet.
Chapter 12- Registered American Singer Canaries.
Chapter 13- Red Factor American Singer Canaries.
Chapter 14- Tune Whistlers- Unusual Birds.
Members' Aids.

FOREWORD

In presenting these STANDARDS with the CONSTITUTION BYLAWS and RULES the Standards Committee gives you this Information in order that a uniform procedure may result in all shows where the American Singers Club, Inc. awards its Patronage.
This data is for MEMBERS ONLY to acquaint them with the fundamental ground work of raising a winning strain of American Singer Canaries and to inform them what is to be expected of their exhibits at shows. Every Exhibitor hopes to win when birds are entered in shows, through competition with other birds bred the same so that mistakes can be corrected. It is useless to spend money on entries unless certain rules are followed and definite planning is carried out. Our rules given here are easy to understand and carry out.
The following pages include our CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS with Chapters on BREEDING-TRAINING-JUDGING-SCORING and EXHIBITING written so every one can easily find answers to their problems and refer to them from time to time without writing to our OFFICERS for advice.
The CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS were accepted by vote of the members in 1943 when our First Printing went to all members. The STANDARDS were revised in 1945 with new rules added by vote of the members (Second Printing). Now in 1950 (Third Printing) by vote of the members, Rules must be changed to include closed bands on all Singers where our Patronage is given. Changes are made in BYLAWS so marked under Patronage, Judges, Show Cages, Classification and Chapters and in the STANDARDS in Chapters on Training, Registration, Classification, Judges, Scoring and Pedigreed Registered Singers.

William D. Porter
Chairman of Standards Committee [1950]

This 1992 printing was edited by Judy Snider, Jessie Durkin and Bill Summers, updated with all amendments to bylaws voted on by our members over the years. Most old text has been retained, though lined out, for historical consideration.


HISTORY of the AMERICAN SINGER CLUB

The American Singers Club (ASC) was founded in 1934 in Milton, Mass. by a group of eight women breeders. The first birds were exhibited in the Boston Show of that year. The name American Singer was adopted by vote of the members after this first show.
This breed has been standardized and is the only AMERICAN bred Canary known as the AMERICAN SINGER Border-Roller Type Songster. Many have called their birds American Singers, but only birds bred by our plan are GENUINE AMERICAN SINGERS.
The members definitely adopted the method of breeding Border to Roller in 1942, but this same method was already in use by most of our members in 1935 on through the years. Our Model and 100 Point Score sheet was accepted in 1943 along with instructions for Judges and are used at all shows where AMERICAN SINGERS are shown; only Official Judges may be used where the American Singer Club, Inc. gives patronage.
The CLUB was incorporated by donation from members in all states, but through the efforts of BOSTON, MASS. Chapter No. 2, we qualify under Mass. laws as a nonprofit organization.
Our SEAL was designed by Charles Radocy with the help of Mrs. Small, then President, and by Mr. Lucius Armitage. Our MODEL was first designed by Mr. Welty and changed to the present model by vote of the Members through the efforts of Chapter 2, Boston.

For more information on the American Singer Club, Inc., you may contact:

Sally Kemerer, President
RD 6 Box 117
Greensburg, PA 15601
(412)832-0448

DEFINITION OF THE AMERICAN SINGER CANARY
The American Singer Canary is a Song Type Canary bred in the United States by a systematic plan, known as the blending of Roller to Border Fancy over a period of years to produce a Canary that has (1) an outstanding free harmonious song, pleasing to the ear, neither too loud or too harsh, with plenty of VARIETY and (2) a beautiful shape or type not over 5 3/4 inches long with tight feather that will please the average home lover of canaries.


CONSTITUTION & BY-LAWS OF THE AMERICAN SINGERS CLUB, INC.

ARTICLE I. NAME.
Sec. 1. The name of this club shall be the AMERICAN SINGERS CLUB, INC.

ARTICLE II. OBJECT OR PURPOSE.
Sec. 1. The object of this club is to promote the best interest of the members interested in the breeding of AMERICAN SINGER CANARIES, to disseminate information, to hold meetings, to do any and all things which will stimulate a public interest in this work.

ARTICLE III. MEMBERS.
Sec. 1. Membership in this club shall be limited to breeders, owners of canaries bred for the home and also those interested in AMERICAN SINGER CANARIES.

ARTICLE IV. OFFICERS.
Sec. 1. The officers of this club shall consist of a President, First Vice-President, Second Vice-President, Secretary-Treasurer, National Advisory Board, Editorial Staff, Nominating Committee, and Regional Directors. 1
Sec. 2. The above officers constitute the National Governing Board and shall transact all business of the club and have power to settle all matters of importance, filling all vacancies on the board between regular elections.
Sec. 3. [Amendment 1996] The poisition of Editor of the Newsletter shall now be created to write, edit, publish, and mail the quarterly newsletter with the help of other ASC members as appointed by the Editor from the membership at large. This officer will be elected to four-year terms on the regular ASC ballot and shall be a voting member of the National Board.

ARTICLE V. MEMBERSHIP.
Sec. 1. A candidate for membership must furnish the National Secretary with name, address, name of specialty or local club membership endorsed by member in good standing with dues of the current year. If unable to be endorsed by member, candidate should furnish the names of two people in the candidate's vicinity.
Sec. 2. Upon investigation by Membership Committee, Candidate will be notified if accepted and receive Membership Card, and a copy of CONSTITUTION & BY-LAWS. 2

ARTICLE VI. DUES.
Sec. 1. Dues of $2.00 per year are due and payable the first of January each year. $1.00 of Dues goes to Trophy Fund, 50 cents to General Expense and 50 cents goes for Secretary Salary.
To allow for at least two newsletters per year; National American Singer Dues shall be raised to $8.00 for a single membership and $10.00 for a dual membership.[New 1990]
[Amendment 1995] Dues for a single membership shall be $10.00; dual membership shall be $15.00, effective January 1, 1995.
Sec. 2. Any member three month in arrears shall be notified by the Secretary and for failure to settle in full within one month from date of notice shall cease to be a member and without further notice be dropped from the rolls. Elected Officers and Judges must pay before Feb. 1st or advise the Secretary to the contrary. 3
Sec. 3. Any candidate for membership joining in July will be automatically be listed as a member in good standing for the next current year provided proof is given.
Sec. 4. Dues must be paid not later than May 1st of any current year for a member to be eligible to be counted for Prized and Patronage awarded by the American Singers Club, Inc.
Sec. 5. No person or exhibitor can claim a prize or awards given by the American Singers Club, Inc. for members only, American Singer Closed bands, by paying their dues at a show. A certified list of members with American singer Closed Leg-Band Numbers will be sent to all Judges to prove who is eligible for awards.
Sec. 6. Only members will be eligible to obtain closed American Singer Leg Bands. All leg-band numbers will be registered on the backs of each member's membership card covering four years by the National Secretary or appointed registrars, so that a member will be eligible to win awards at any show where American Singers Club, Inc. gives patronage.
American Singer closed leg bands will be made of colored metal, and a different color will be used each year. The pattern will be repeated every eight years. [New 1968]

1Editorial staff and regional officers are not in use since the early days of the ASC. These tasks are accomplished by other officers listed.
2References are generally not required.
3Members are not notified to pay dues by Secretary.

BY-LAWS

ARTICLE VII. DUTIES OF NATIONAL OFFICERS.
Sec. 1. The President shall be ex-officio member of all committees and shall preside over all meeting of the club and National Governing Board, enforce all rules and regulation; appoint all committees and exercise a general supervision over all interests of the club, either in person or by mail.
Sec. 2. The First Vice-President shall assume the duties of the President in his or her absence or in case of resignation, and shall have charge of the District where he or she resides [New 7/91] The First Vice-President of American Singers Club shall, in addition to duties already defined by our Constitution, dedicate himself to the recruitment of judges in all parts of the country to keep our fancy balanced and healthy. In addition, this officer will assist local show committees in retaining judges for their shows, if requested to do so by clubs seeking judges.
Sec. 3. The Second Vice-President shall assume the duties of the First Vice-President or the President in case of their absence or resignation of either, and have charge of his or her District where he or she resides.
[New 7/91] The Second Vice-President shall, in addition to duties already defined by our Constitution, dedicate himself to the growth and well being of our chapters through correspondence with chapter heads, assisting, if asked, in the writing of chapter constitutions and maters of good parliamentary procedure: He shall encourage the beginnings of American Singer sections at all-type or local shows. The Second Vice-President is the advocate of the fancier trying to begin a local chapter or show.
Sec. 4. (A) The Secretary Treasurer shall conduct all correspondence of the Club and shall keep record of same.
(B) Every document of importance should have the club's Official Seal affixed under the signature of the Secretary.
(C) The Secretary-Treasurer should prepare monthly notes of interest to be sent to the Monthly magazines.
(D) The Secretary-Treasurer shall have charge of all funds and publish a report at the end of the year under the direction of the President.4
Sec. 5. (A) The National Advisory Board shall consist of two elected members of good standing and be consulted on all Canary problems pertaining to the American Singers.
(B) The Board shall answer all questions, solve all problems of the members to the best of their ability.
(C) They may call on any group of persons or anyone they wish to assist them.
Sec. 6. The Editorial Staff shall consist of two members and shall act as Publicity Managers to plan and edit all articles for publication sent them, so only matters of informative nature is published in monthly magazines. (1948 combined under the National Advisory Board.)
Sec. 7. The Nominating Committee of three or more members elected by the members shall submit a list of Officers and Directors to the Secretary in November of each year as their suggested choice for the ballot, at least two names for each office, or one name for re-election but the members can vote as they see fit from the full list of members in good standing sent out by the Secretary with the ballot. No signatures or membership numbers are to be requested on the return ballot.5
Sec. 8. Regional Directors 6 should be five in number, but more can be so ordered by the President if needed. The Directors with all the above Officers shall decide to which shows the American Singers Club, Inc. shall grant its patronage, shall decide the nature of same, shall act as a judicial body to settle disputes between its members and other clubs; shall be active in organizing groups in their respective Districts, checking old and new members, reporting to the Secretary all items of interest and reports from their District, and do all in their power to further the American Singers club, Inc.
Sec. 9. The National Governing Board which consists of all Officers should be consulted through the Secretary of any action, taken against any person, firm or anybody, with first the approval of the President, before any member shall first carry on correspondence with said person, or firm, to be sure a majority vote of the Board is guaranteed.
4The Secretary-Treasurer is the sole registrar of the ASC bands.
5See Article XIII: ELECTION.
6These appointments not currently observed.

ARTICLE VIII. COMMITTEES.
JUDGING COMMITTEE.7
Sec. 1. (A) The President shall appoint a Judging Committee not later than February 1st of each year to receive applications from members who wish to become judges.
(B) This Committee should consist of not fewer than three members of each District, of which one should be the National Secretary, and the other two left to the discretion of the President.
(C) Application for Judgeship should be accompanied by Judging School Score sheets or score sheets applicant made out under one of our Official Judges while sitting in at a regular show.
(D) If applicant is accepted by Committee, applicant will receive Judges Certificate signed and sealed by Chairman of Judges Committee, National Secretary and President, and will be placed on Judges List and kept there as long as Judge is in good standing.
MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE.
Sec. 2. The President shall appoint a Membership committee not later than February 1st of each year to pass on the qualifications of candidates for membership.
NATIONAL CONVENTION COMMITTEE.
Sec. 3. The appointment of a committee for National Convention or National show shall be left to the discretion of the President and the National Governing Board.
REGISTRATION COMMITTEE.8 [New 1950]
Sec. 4. The President shall appoint a committee consisting of the National Secretary, President and one other Member. Purpose to plan the method and carry out the registration of all closed American Singers Club leg bands. The Committee will have the power to appoint registrars in each Local Club or district as many as needed to be sure that all bands are registered on the backs of all members cards that use our Leg Bands.
HEALTH COMMITTEE. [New 1950]
Sec. 5. The President shall appoint a committee to report all sickness and deaths also removals among the members to the Secretary. This committee should consist of either Directors or Secretaries of Chapters or a member who is willing to take on this work.
7These committees currently not in use. See Article X: Judges.
8Bands are currently registered only by our National Secretary-Treasurer.

ARTICLE IX. PATRONAGE.
Sec. 1. Patronage will be granted with the approval of the National Governing Board.
AWARDING OF AMERICAN SINGER POINTS & PRIZES. [New 7/91] These shall now be awarded according to the number of American Singer males in competition the day of the show according to the following schedule; Our judges will carry with them full sets of medallions and rosettes, returning those not awarded to the National. It is generally thought that this will help to 'beef up' the numbers of the smaller or newer American Singer sections. The National Cage-Bird show will always receive full awards and points since it is a showcase for all the bird fancies, and we American Singer Breeders certainly do not want our birds to come out less well dressed than any of the other types of fancies.

EXISTING SCHEDULE OF A.S.C. AWARDS AND POINTS
151 + A.S. banded males shown:
A.S.C. Championship points
1st Place Award Rosette 6
2nd Place Award Rosette 5
3rd Place Award Rosette 4
4th Place No Award Rosette 3
5th Place No Award Rosette 2
101-150 A.S. banded males shown:
1st Place Award Rosette 5
2nd Place Award Rosette 4
3rd Place No Award Rosette 3
4th Place No Award Rosette 2
5th Place No Award Rosette 1
51-100 A.S. banded males shown:
1st Place Award Rosette 4
2nd Place No Award Rosette 3
3rd Place No Award Rosette 2
4th Place No Award Rosette 1
5th Place No Award Rosette 0
30 to 50 A.S. banded males shown:
1st Place No Award Rosette 3
2nd Place No Award Rosette 2
3rd Place No Award Rosette 1
4th Place No Award Rosette 0
5th Place No Award Rosette 0

It still takes 20 Points to make a Grand Champion.

[Sec. 2 through 6 no longer applicable. Reproduced here for Historical interest.]
Sec. 2. Secretary of Local Chapter or Local Bird Club shall write not later than April 1st of each year to the National Secretary asking for a list of Qualified Judges in good standing so a choice can be made for judging the American Singer Sections for the current year shows. 9
Sec. 3. Upon election of Judge by the Chapters or Local Clubs a request must be sent the National Secretary not later than August 31st of each year with the names of the Judge or Judges elected, for Patronage.
Sec. 4. Patronage will be based on whether Judges are acceptable to the Board and how many members in good standing in a Chapter or Club.
Sec. 5. Members can only be counted once in one calendar year in any Chapter or Local Club of the members choice. Members will be eligible to compete for Prizes awarded by the A.S.C., Inc., at every show where Patronage is awarded.
Sec. 6. If the application for Patronage is found acceptable to the Board according to Art.III. and Art.X the A.S.C., Inc. will grant one prize for five to twelve members; two prizes for thirteen to twenty members; three prizes for twenty-one or more members. Not more than three prizes will be awarded to a Chapter or Local Club within one calendar year. Value and size of prizes are based on number of members giving patronage to a certain show.
Sec. 7. Two Judging sheets will be furnished for each class in the American Singer Section and will be sent to either the Judge or Judges or the Show Sec. as soon as the National Secretary is informed how many classes are listed in the Premium List or Show Catalogue.
Sec. 8. Local Clubs or Chapters sponsoring shows not using Qualified Judges and being refused patronage have no right to use, copy, or print the Official American Singers Club, Inc. Score Sheet or Classify birds under the name AMERICAN SINGERS. They are liable for Court Action by the American Singers Club, Inc.
Sec. 9. Chapters, Local Clubs or Groups sponsoring shows, obtaining patronage from American Singers Club, Inc. must abide by our Constitution, By-Laws and follow the rules and regulations in our Standards.
Sec. 10. [New 1950] Patronage (Trophies & Awards will be awarded for American Singer Closed leg band only registered by members of the American Singers Club, Inc. All males exhibited must be bred, trained and exhibited by original member who registered the bird. (See Chapter 3 Registration.) No birds of transferred ownership will be allowed to win Awards.
Sec. 11. [New 1950] Only male birds with registered American Singer leg bands are eligible to win our awards.
Sec. 12. [New 1950] Novices who are National members exhibiting in Novice classes (Sub Section) exhibiting only in Novice Classes are eligible to win Novice Prizes only and NOT Chapter and National Awards placed in Open Competition.10
Sec. 13. [New 1950] All protests and differences between members, Judges and show officials should be settled locally. The National Officers and National Governing Board are not responsible for what happens at any local club.
[Sec. 14 is no longer applicable]
Sec. 14. [New 1950] Members who are not connected with any local club and never expect to exhibit may declare where they wish their patronage to be placed. They are welcome to write to the National Advisors or Secretary at any time they wish for information they require to help them breed and raise better birds for their own enjoyment.
Sec. 15. [Amendment 1996] If a show committee desires to limit the American Singer entries per exhibitor at their show to prevent unmanageable numbers that cannot be judged in a timely or fair manner, it may use The Limit Safety Net provided it informs the National Secretary of the exact number of the limit in time for publication in the Autumn newsletter. Points and prizes when using The Limit Safety Net will be awarded at the "limited" show based upon numbers of entries at the show that day or the number of entries at the previous year's show, whichever is greater. The purpose of The Limit Safety Net is to encourage show committees to limit entries as necessary to spare the Judge and stewards unwieldy numbers of birds.

9Shows generally obtain judge a year in advance.
10American Singers are seldom shown nowadays in novice classes. Some clubs will award first year fancier trophies to high-scoring birds bred by novices who enter their birds in regular competition classes.

ARTICLE X. JUDGES
Sec. 1. Judges must be members of the American Singers Club, Inc., in good standing and must follow the instructions on judging, use the score sheet in judging each entry and class in the American Singer Section where patronage or specials are awarded.
Sec. 1A. Any Judge who has not judged a show in three years, will be taken off the American Singers Judging list. [New 1968]
Sec. 1B. Judges must raise and exhibit American Singer Canaries that are bred, banded and trained by themselves. [New 1968] "Exhibit" means that an American Singer Judge should show his own bred, banded, and trained American Singers in sanctioned American Singer shows (to be shown as American Singers.) Two years is a fair grace period for American Singer Judges (not to have shown their birds for reasons of personal difficulty). [New 1/94]
Sec. 2. Two Score sheets are to be used for each Class except where Classes are too large (20 or more entries) then two sheets are used for each Subsection of the classes. The Judge makes duplicate sheets, one for the Show Secretary and one for the Judge's record.11
Sec. 3. The use of color food, vegetable dye, or color assist in any form is absolutely forbidden and barred in feed to all American Singer Canaries during the moult or at any time. Judges must disqualify all entries at shows showing color food.
Sec. 4. Any Judge or member who is a breeder of American Singer Canaries must qualify and receive a Judges Certificate, passed by the Judge's Committee and registered with the National Secretary before being eligible to judge American Singer classes in the American Singer Section.
Sec. 5. Candidates for Judgeship must signify their desire to judge by advising the National Secretary, and on receiving the Judge's blank must secure two signatures of members in good standing and the Director in charge of their District. Send this blank filled out together with two score sheets of two classes the Candidate judged in a Judging School or under the tutorship of an official Judge to the National Secretary to be acted on by the Judge's Committee. On acceptance the candidate will receive a Judges Certificate duly signed and sealed by the Chairman of the Judges Committee, National Secretary and President.
Sec. 6. All qualified Judges must register complete scores of all high-scoring birds through the 6th Best of every show he or she judges at the end of each show, with the National Secretary. The information must include the name and address of the Member Exhibitors, color, age, breakdown of score and leg band number. [New 1991]
Sec. 7. The Judging Committee and the National Governing board can request a recording of the Winner's song to be able to compare the different songs. These records would be available to members as tutor records, and also used in discussions in Chapters and all-type meetings. The cost of recording would be left to the decision of the Governing Board.
When an American Singer Member in good standing desires to be a candidate for judgeship, he must signify his desire to Judge by advising the National Secretary, who will then send candidate an application and judge's blank. The candidate member shall be required; (1) To be breeding and exhibiting for a minimum of 5 years. (2) To be raising and exhibiting American Singer Canaries that are bred, banded and trained by themselves. (3) To have full understanding of judge's rules and regulations, song standards and classifications. (4) To sit in with two sanctioned Judges (can be done over a period of two show seasons).
Upon completion, the application, judge's blank and two complete score sheets from each judge will be sent to the National Secretary. On acceptance, the candidate will receive a Judge's certificate, duly signed and sealed by the Chairman of the Judges Committee, the National Secretary and the President. The candidate will then be placed on the current Judge's list. [New 1990]
When the number of American Singer Judges holding cards becomes less than the number of American Singer shows, members with less than five years of experience showing their birds may, after sitting with two certified American Singer Judges who have signed the application-score sheets, apply for their judge's cards, providing that: A. he has in addition, studied and completed the one-hundred question exam, B. Exhibited at no less than ten shows, and C. is granted majority approval of the American Singers Club elected board of officers and advisors. The purpose of this escape clause is to keep the American Singers Club shows functioning through times of emergency judge shortage. [New 7/91]
While judging, American Singer Judges shall keep in their possession at all times, a complete copy of the day's judging results. As score sheet originals are sent out to the secretaries to be copied for the benefit of the exhibitor, the Judge will keep carbons. At the show's conclusion, the Judge retains in his possession his original score sheets, giving the show secretary the carbons so that any later dispute may be quickly resolved, first at the club level with the secretary and the carbons, later, if necessary, through the Judge, with his originals, which he will keep a year and a day after judging. The Judge's decision is final.
The American Singer Judge will notify the National secretary, immediately, in writing, after contracting to judge any AS section as to the name of the club, location and precise date of the show.
In the interest of sound public relations, the American Singer Judge will answer every bid letter within a week with a definite yes, no, or reason a clear answer cannot be given at that time.
The Judge will notify the National Secretary within one week of completing a judging assignment of the top six birds on the official form provided by the National, including sight descriptions of birds and band numbers with names of breeders as well as points earned and total number of birds at the show. [New 7/91]
Sec. 8. [Amendment 1995] The American Singer Judge shall refrain from trafficking in American Singer stock during the weekend of a judging assignment. At the very least the word "trafficking" shall be defined to mean the purchase of any American Singer male that will or has been judged by the judge during the current judging weekend.
11According to 7-91 amendment, classes may not exceed nine birds without judge's permission. See JUDGE'S RULES, chapter 10.

ARTICLE XI. SHOW CAGES. [New 1950]
Sec. 1. American Singers will be shown in the Standard Show Cage (adopted by the American Singers Club, Inc. in 1938) whenever possible. This cage was 11 inches wide, 7 inches deep, 10 inches high, with canary spacing, fitted with 2 glass outside cups, 2 top perches and one feeder perch, with 2 ends and back shield that could be removed, finished in chrome. The drawer could be locked. [Amendment 1995] A show cage may be fitted with either 2 glass outside cups, or 2 one-piece short plastic outside cups.
Sec. 2. Shelf cages can be used as long as they are the size of the cage in Sec. 1. Either nickel or silver finish now can be obtained.
Sec. 3. No identifying marks of any kind are allowed on cages, such as special color paint, special perches or cups, tags, breeders cards, etc. Only standard equipment will be allowed. Demerits will be given if only one top perch is used.
All showcage trays shall be painted a flat silver color to match the color of the showcage. [New 7/91]
All perches for the showcage shall be fashioned from 1/2 inch round doweling of an average light wood color. [New 7/91]
Plastic leg bands will not be permitted on American Singers competing for American Singer points or prizes. [New 7/91]
Sec. 4. Birds having a standard of their own or no standard will not be judged but will be marked "NOT A.S.".

ARTICLE XII. CLASSIFICATION.
Sec. 1. Standard American Singer Classification must be used by all Clubs, Chapters, or Groups sponsoring a show where Qualified Judges operate and patronage is awarded.
All clubs, chapters or groups sponsoring a show, where qualified American Singer judges operate and patronage is awarded, have a choice of using either the color classification, or group system.
[Classification by color has not been used since 1960.]
Sec. 2. GROUP SYSTEM.12
Since color has no bearing in the judging of American Singers, the birds will be entered only as young or old. Birds will then be entered in groups by the show secretary. A group will consist of about eight birds of mixed color, including red factors. Each bird entered by an exhibitor will be put into a different group insofar as possible and practical. No exhibitor will have more than one bird in a group unless he enters more birds than there are groups of that age. Judges will use a lottery to determine the order in which the groups will be judged, and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class ribbon will be awarded the same as color classes.
(ADVANTAGES) Under the color classification system, if entered several birds of the same color and age, they could possibly all be put in the same group and have to compete against each other. The group system eliminates competing against yourself. No particular color can be given a choicer time of day. Eliminates confusion over color, and eliminates the chance of a bird being disqualified because of wrong color classification.
A CAGE TAGGING SYSTEM which greatly simplifies the grouping and shortens the time needed top transfer scores from Judge's sheets, to official score sheets, may be obtained by all secretaries from the National American Singer Club Secretary. [New 1968]
Sec. 2. All Tune Whistlers, Hens, and Novice classes must be shown in a sub section of the American Singer Section with special classifications of their own to suit the American Singers Club, Inc., members and elected qualified Judges with the sanction of the National Governing Board.
Sec. 3. Subsections in most cases can be judged on the Official Score sheet under the American Singers Club, Inc., Standards. Song will be eliminated in judging Hens.
Sec. 4. All regular classes will be judged by American Singers Club, Inc., Standards, one entry fee only.
Sec. 5. All color-bred red factor American Singers are now classed in the regular classes and should be from the 6th to the 10th generation from the first mating of the Siskin and Roller or Border to insure fair or equal competition in all shows. (See Chapter 6.)
12This Group System was implemented by George Commons, long time president of the American Singers Club, Inc.

ARTICLE XIII. ELECTIONS.
Sec. 1. Officers shall be elected for their term of office as follows: Each year in December upon receiving the report of the Nominating Committee, the National Secretary shall mail out a list of members with the above report to each member in good standing with the ballot. TERMS OF OFFICE: No officer shall be eligible for more than three consecutive terms of office without first vacating that office for a term. [New 1990]
Members shall submit their names for the office they are seeking to the nominating committee by November 1st of an election year. They shall be members in good standing (current dues paid) and shall submit a brief statement outlining what they can do for the American Singers Club. [New 1990] The Nominating Committee shall verify that all members running for office, including those nominated by the Committee are willing to serve the term of office they seek. [New 1990]
All candidates shall be listed on the ballot alphabetically with no other distinction listed. [New 1990]
Any member in good standing may place his name on the official American Singers Club ballot by notifying the American Singer Club Secretary of the office he seeks, this to be done before December 1 prior to elections. The candidate's petition must be signed by three members of the American Singer Club as an endorsement to his candidacy. The secretary will place names of self-nominated candidates on the ballot in addition to those nominated by our duly elected nominating committee. Write-ins will, as in the past, continue to be allowed, in accordance with our Constitution. [New 7/91]
Though any American Singers Club member in good standing may run for any office, no member may hold more than one position on the board at any given time, effective 1993. [New 7/91]
Sec. 1.A. [Amendment 1996] To save money and give members time for reflection, the Nominating Committee and members interested in running for positions on the National Board [officers] shall now inform the National Secretary of their nominations or desire to run for office no later than August 1st of an election year so that the ballot might be sent to the membership in the Autumn Newsletter and mailed back to the Secretary by December 1st for a speedy beginning of the new year.
Sec. 2. The ballot must be returned before December 31 to the National Secretary; Member signature and number is not required. Dues and leg band orders should be sent at the same time. Members wishing to resign should advise the Secretary as soon as possible.
Sec. 3. All Officers will be elected to serve one year with the exception of the Editor for five years, Assistant Editor for two years, and the Secretary and Treasurer for five years. The Board will have the Power to make new appointments in case of any resignations during term of office.
Sec. 3A. All officers will be elected for two years excepting the National Secretary-Treasurer who shall be elected for four years. The board will have the power to make new appointments in case of resignation during term of office. [New prior to 1960]
Sec. 4. The members receiving the largest number of votes for office or for the National Governing Board from those voting shall be elected and so notified by the National Secretary.

ARTICLE XIV. CHAPTERS.
Sec. 1. Chapters should be formed in every locality where three, five or more members can hold meetings. There can be as many Chapters in one locality as there are different groups of members in local clubs.
Sec. 2. Groups of members wishing to form Chapters should first get the sanction of the National Governing Board through the National Secretary.
Sec. 3. At the first meeting, Chapters should elect a President, Vice-President, Secretary-Treasurer, and three Directors. Vote on Chapter Dues, adopt ByLaws patterned after the National Constitution and ByLaws conforming to the laws of the states where members reside and then decide their program.
Sec. 4. Groups or Chapters can decide to incorporate in the State where they reside if they wish to protect their rights under the common law, if members wish to underwrite expenses.
Sec. 5. Chapters may act in all matters of their own local interest as long as they adhere to the National ByLaws and abide by Honesty and Fair Play.
Sec. 6. Duties of Chapters will be the same as the National organization with the exception of the Chapter secretary, who will correspond with the National Secretary to keep an up-to-date list of paid-up members and Judges, collect National dues, as well as dues for the Chapter and send in notes of interest to the Secretary for publication.
Sec. 7. Chapters will be called on to decide matters of importance and are expected to canvas for new members and instruct same.
Sec. 8. Chapters will help qualify their own Judges and hold School for instructing new Judges. Chapter meetings should be conducted with as little business as possible and should be devoted to lectures and discussions on bird problems.
Sec. 9. Chapters will receive their Certificate of Operation or Charter with their Chapter number and the name their members choose.
Sec. 10. All Chapter Officers must be National Members, and only National Members in a Chapter have a right to vote in either Chapter or National affairs. Others may join as Associate Members in a Chapter but cannot hold office and do not have the right to vote. [New 1950]
Sec. 11. Chapters or groups of National Members may help their local club by underwriting the Judge of their choice, their advertisements in the Catalogue, their prizes, helping on stewarding and other ways.
Sec. 12. Chapters will nominate delegates to a National Convention whenever the call comes in order that every member shall have a vote in the proceedings of the convention. Their Expenses should be arranged and supplied by the Chapter if the Delegates are unable to pay all the expenses.
Sec. 13. Chapters will pledge themselves to bring forth new ideas in order that closer cooperation between local clubs and other specialty clubs will culminate to show that the American Singers Club, Inc. is out to help every show where American Singers are shown by increasing entries and returns for show management.
Sec. 14. In case where only one of a couple or partner joins the National American Singers Club, Inc., in a Chapter, that National member is the only one who can vote or hold office, use our leg bands or have birds entered in his or her name to compete for any American Singers Club, Inc. awards. That member's name should be so marked in all advertisements. The other person of the couple or partnership can join as an associate member as per Sec. 10. [New 1950]

ARTICLE XV. AMENDMENTS.
Sec. 1. Amendments to these Constitution and ByLaws can be added from time to time as the Officers and members see fit for the best, which will be adopted by the majority of votes of the members.
Sec. 2. Any group of five members in good standing signed by all may send the suggested amendment typed in duplicate to the National Secretary.
Sec. 3. On receipt of said amendment the President will nominate a Committee to consider and prepare the Amendment so they can be sent to the Members by the National Secretary for a vote, and decide the best time and date for submitting same to members.
Sec. 4. The National Secretary mujst request all return votes on amendments to be returned within 30 days. Members names and numbers optional with the members.
Sec. 5. The National Secretary must publish the results of the vote by notifying all members in good standing either by mail or publication in the magazines.
NOTE: The Constitution and By-Laws were adopted by vote in 1943, revised in 1950 and 1992.

STANDARDS OF THE AMERICAN SINGERS CLUB, INC.
CHAPTER 1. BREEDING.

INTRODUCTION.
1. The mating, by systematic plan, of Border Fancy to Roller or Roller to Border for either one or two pairs of birds was adopted by the American Singers Club, Inc., in 1942.
2. The selection of the foundation stock and the plan was left to the discretion of the breeder as to how to actually produce the American Singer Canary.
3. The line breeding chart of Mr. I.K. Flech was the first used to illustrate the plan of correct mating of one or two pairs to produce foundation stock. After much discussion by some of the members, the following plan where only [a section] of the Flech chart is used. This plan has proved correct.

EXPLANATION OF FOUNDATION STOCK.
4A. The Border Fancy Canary is the English type canary established in 1888 on the border of England and Scotland, referred to as the "Wee Gem". The Border has several outstanding features: (1) A beautiful shape, (2) Tightness of feather, (3) An outstanding Chopper song, (4) The Border breeds true to type and color. To maintain these features the Border breeder must breed by systematic plan to be able to produce winners on the show bench. Careful selection of breeding pairs to produce show specimens is necessary as well as correct choice of mates to insure color, size, type and quality of feather.
4B. Breeders of American Singers should obtain a medium-sized, unrelated pair of clear buff or yellow, pedigreed birds to produce foundation stock. Pairs need not be show birds but can be stock birds of medium size from a winning strain.
4C. The Roller Canary originated in Germany. There are two well-known kinds of Rollers, the Glucke and the Seifert.13 Either one can be used to form the American Singer Canary. The Roller has no set body type and is only judged for song. Its song is made up of Tours and a combination of notes and is noted for the sweet blending of these Tours.
4D. Although some breeders claim Seifert Rollers make the best American Singer because they have a sweeter song, Seiferts are very scarce and difficult to obtain. In fact, any Roller as well as Glucke Rollers will produce excellent American Singers.
4E. Breeders of American Singers should obtain the best pedigreed unrelated pair of Rollers with as near perfect score in song for foundation stock. It is said that type and song come from the female. Light colored pairs should be selected as large as one can obtain.
13At present Seifert rollers cannot be located, and other good roller strains are used.

METHOD.
5A. The use of the line breeding chart mentioned above insures uniformity of size, shape, color and song by using only one or two pairs of unrelated birds.
5B. Only one section of this Chart is illustrated followed through over a period of four (4) years. This section leans towards the Roller side of the Flech plan. Other sections are stated under alternate matings.
5C. If desired results are not obtained after the second and third year, the breeding in of new Border and Roller stock is permissible, but breeders are advised to adhere to the original pairs, as it is found that careful selection of breeding pairs over a period of years will obtain winners. The faulty progeny may not be the fault of the original pairs, but the fault of the breeder in pairing offspring the second and third year.
5D. A breeder can start with a Sisken-Roller cross Red Factor bird beyond the hybrid stage and breed a Border for size and type and follow our breeding plan from there, producing a good strain of red factor American Singers. In this way one would have a blending off Sisken-Roller-Border song with plenty of variety in the song.

RECORD.
6A. A definite plan where every bird is marked, to be able to register or keep a record of the mating should be kept.
6B. By vote of members in 1950 all American Singers must be banded with American Singer Closed leg bands numbered in series with the year of hatching. These bands must be registered with the National Secretary and are not only for the breeder's protection but additional proof that the birds are as represented, bred by our plan and are American Singers, providing our plan is followed.

PAIR A AMERICAN SINGER CANARY
BREEDING CHART
PAIR S
1ST YEAR.
B 100% R R 100% B
Even No's Males
Odd No's Females
10M 11F 13F 50/50% 12M 15F 17F
2nd YEAR.
10M R
50/50% 100%
R 15F
100% 50/50%
20M 21F 23F 75/25% 22M 25F 27F
20M 11F
25/75% 50/50%
30M 31F 33F
37.5/62.5%
3rd YEAR.
22M-S 23F-A
75/25% 25/75%
300M 301F
A-S 75/25%
12M 27F
50/50% 75/25%
32M 35F 37F
62.5/37.5%
30M 21F
37.5/62.5% 25/75%
40M 41F 43F
31.25/68.75%
4th YEAR.
300M 31F
75/25% 37.5/62.5%
400M 401F
68.75/31.25%
32M 25F
62.5/37.5% 75/25%
42M 45F 47F
68.75/31.25%

CHART: EXPLANATION.
7A. The use of pictured birds representing the pairs used over four years with their young is chosen to make a clear picture instead of squares and circles. Fictitious leg-band numbers are given so any breeder can follow the chart easily. Even numbers are males. Odd numbers are females. 10 Group 1st year, 20 Group 2nd year, 30 and 300 Groups are 3rd year, etc. Breeders can substitute definite leg band numbers on this chart and follow their own efforts. Pair A. and Pair S. are chosen because when put together A.S. stand for American Singer Canary. Percentages are shown to denote Border and Roller Blood.
7B. First Year. (See Chart) Pair A. Border male mated to Roller hen, Pair S. Roller male mated to Border hen, produces 10 Group. Select the best out of two or three nests for use in future years. Dispose of all birds which show faults on American Singers Club Score Sheet. Never use small birds at anytime in breeding.
7C. Second Year. (See Chart) Pair A. 10 male mated with Roller mother, three nests. Pair S. Roller father mated with 15 female not more than two nests as you are using a one year hen. These mating produce GROUP 20. Make your selections as advised above.
7D. Third Year. (See Chart) Pair 20 male mated with either 11 or 13 female, male can be used with two hens. Three nests can be taken as these hens are two years old. Pair S. 12 male mated with 25 or 27 female. Two nests as these females are two years old. These matings produce GROUP 30. Make your selections as advised above.
7E. It will be permissible if a breeder desires to make an additional mating, as follows (See Chart). Mate 22 male Pair S. to 23 female Pair A., to produce a new strain, the blending of the two pairs forming GROUP 300 foundation A.S. Only 300 male and 301 female is shown, but we advise the selection of at least two or three males and four to six females for use in years to come, but be sure they come from as near conformation to our MODEL as possible without faults. Selection of correct color matings should always be the rule.
7F. Fourth Year (See Chart) Pair A. 30 male mated to 21 female, it is also permissible to use 11 or 14 female as an alternate. Pair S. 32 male mated to 25 female, also permissible to use 15 or 17 female as alternate. These matings produce GROUP 40.
7G. Group 300 male A.S. mated with 31 or 35 female and GROUP 30 or 32 male mated with 301 GROUP A.S. female will produce 400 GROUP A.S.
7H. Fifth Year and years after breeders can go on from here pairing birds without danger of breeding too close in relationship, provided males and females of the same immediate families are not mated. Breed for size, type, song and feather. Breeders can determine the percentage of Border or Roller blood based on the illustrated chart and the table of alternate matings.
7I. American Singer members can breed border to red-factor-roller or red-factor-border-roller crosses into the A.S. Stud or start with the red-factor-roller mating with border for their original pair of birds to breed red-factor American Singers. A definite different song will be the result. It will take a few years of breeding to build up the type of the A.S. Model, and it will mean all red-factor birds will need more training than the regular colors to make them free singers, because of the Siskin parentage.
7J. Only the birds best in color should be used for breeding pairs as well as type and song. Only the best buff, yellow, green, cinnamon, blue or white birds as well as the deepest shades of light orange, orange and deep orange in red-factor should be used. As long as we are aiming for red birds we should not encourage near whites, frosted or any pale birds in our classifications. Breeders will always have plenty of these birds in a hatch, as well as birds with faults in type and song than more excellent specimens fit for the show bench. As this is true in breeding Borders, it is also true in American Singers, only more so, as Borders are only judged for type, American Singers are judged for SONG with FREEDOM first, then TYPE or CONFORMATION then CONDITION. Color comes under CONFORMATION but does not score in the total 20 Points. In judging AMERICAN SINGERS, the song score as recorded by the Judge holds in the selection of the BEST birds. In case of a tie between the best regular AMERICAN SINGER and the best red-factor AMERICAN SINGER the song and conformation decides which is BEST and not the color.

ALTERNATE MATINGS.
8A. Breeders will find if they only follow the illustrated chart they will have different GROUPS of birds that the chart does not use as years go by. These birds still have many useful years ahead and can produce many more young that will come in handy if the original groups should fail to produce satisfactory type songsters.
8B. A very important fact should be impressed on every American Singer breeder. An American Singer Canary should not have over 80% Roller blood in its veins, because the bird will lose its type and tend to hoop on the perch when it sings. On the other hand, if it carries more than 30% Border, it is very liable to have too many chops in its song and be an extremely loud singer with not much variety.
8C. Study the following table of Alternate Matings, especially the 20 and 30 Groups mated back to the Original Roller pair forming the RSA1 and RSA2 Groups, then the use of the 30 to 10, 40 to 10, 40 to 20 Groups adding to the Chart Group forming the AS 1- AS 2- AS 3- and AS 4- Groups and finally the blending of all the groups above to form eight (8) New Groups ranging from 80/20% to 70/30% of Registered American Singer Groups, to establish the breeder's own strain.

TABLE OF ALTERNATE MATINGS
GROUP *FRACTION % GROUP *FRACTION % GROUP *FRACTION %
20
30
3/4 - 1/4
5/8 - 3/8
-+
+
R
R
100
100
-
-
RAS
RAS 2
7/8 - 1/8
13/16 - 3/16
30
40
40
5/8 - 3/8
11/16 - 5/16
11/16 - 5/16
+
+
+
10
10
20
1/2 - 1/2
1/2 - 1/2
3/4 - 1/2
-
-
-
AS 2
AS 3
AS 4
9/16 - 7/16
19/32 - 13/32
23/32 - 9/32
AS 1
AS 1
11/16 - 5/16
11/16 - 5/16
+
+
RAS 1
RAS 2
7/8 - 1/8
13/16 - 3/16
-
-
PRAS 11
PRAS 12
25/32 - 7/32
3/4 - 1/4
AS 2
AS 2
9/16 - 7/16
9/16 - 7/16
+
+
RAS 1
RAS 2
7/8 - 1/8
13/16 - 3/16
-
-
PRAS 21
PRAS 22
23/32 - 9/32
11/16 - 5/16
AS 3
AS 3
19/32 - 13/32
19/32 - 13/32
+
+
RAS 1
RAS 2
7/8 - 1/8
13/16 - 3/16
-
-
PRAS 31
PRAS 32
47/64 - 17/64
45/64 - 19/64
AS 4
AS 4
23/32 - 9/32
23/32 - 9/32
+
+
RAS 1
RAS 2
7/8 - 1/8
13/16 - 3/16
-
-
PRAS 41
PRAS 42
51/64 - 13/64
49/64 - 15/64
*FRACTIONAL PERCENT EQUIVALENT PERCENT
1/2 - 1/2
3/4 - 1/4
5/8 - 3/8
7/8 - 1/8
50% - 50%
75% - 25%
62.5% - 37.5%
87.5% - 12.5%
9/16 - 7/16
11/16 - 5/16
13/16 - 3/16
56.2% - 43.8%
68.7% - 31.3%
81.2% - 18.8%
19/32 - 13/32
23/32 - 9/32
25/32 - 7/32
59.4% - 40.6%
71.9% - 28.1%
78.1% - 21.9%
45/64 - 19/64
47/64 - 17/64
49/64 - 15/64
51/64 - 13/64
70.3% - 29.7%
73.4% - 26.6%
76.6% - 23.4%
79.7% - 20.3%
CHAPTER 2. BANDING BIRD WITH CLOSED LEG BAND
L.B. 1. American Singer Canaries must be banded with American Singer Closed Leg bands numbered in series with the current year in order that all members will be eligible to win trophies and awards at the shows. (See Chapter 3.) [New 1950]
L.B. 2. As Illustrated you will see a bird's foot with the band slipped on over the toes and up the leg. This procedure must be done before the bird leaves the nest and cannot be put on mature birds.
L.B. 3. Before the baby bird has its eyes open, anytime between the seventh and ninth day according to your birth record is the time to band. As some babies receive more attention and more food than others, a breeder must watch the growth of babies in the nest very closely. One may find the leg and foot developed at the sixth day and still others not before the ninth and tenth day. No set fast rule can be given. Band before you put the birds to bed for the night.
L.B. 4. List your leg band numbers on a pad of paper and begin at the lowest number on the string. Light a match and smoke the bands until they are black all around.14 Only smoke as many as you are going to use. Let them cool and unbend the wire of the string so the bands will come off easily.
L.B. 5. Take the baby out of the nest, holding gently in your left hand with the right foot between your thumb and forefinger. Apply white Vaseline15 to the foot, ankle and leg, not too much, but enough to adhere the three front toes together. Put some on the band. The Vaseline will serve as a salve and the band will go on easier, without danger of damaging the ankle and toes.
L.B. 6. Gently slip the band over the three front toes, up over the ankle, over the back toe and on up the leg, until the back toe falls back into normal position.
L.B. 7. Clean off excess Vaseline with Kleenex and put the baby back with its mother.
L.B. 8. If the foot and leg are too small, the band will often come off in your hand, or if it doesn't, you will find it in the nest the next morning, or at the bottom of the cage as the mother cleans out the nest every morning.
L.B. 9. If this happens, you will have to try again after a day or so. As bands are bright, they must be smoked so the mother won't notice them.
L.B. 10. Record the leg band number against your hatching record in your register of each bird you band. Check off each leg band used on your list of band numbers on the pad of paper so you will know the next number for the next bird you are to band in case the band is black and you cannot read the number. There should be a space on your register to write in male or female, and also color or variegation when each bird gets old enough so you can definitely tell what the sex and color are.
L.B. 11. Your parent birds having a numbered leg band, you can follow closely the breeding charts and instructions in Chapter 1.
14Do not overheat bands or paint will be permanently dulled, creating a "marked" band.
15Talc or even a drop of plain water can also be used.
CHAPTER 3. REGISTRATION

R. 1. [New 1950] All Singers must be closed banded with American Singer metal bands giving series number and year.
R. 2. Proof of age is exhibitor's assurance of ownership and proof against protests. It is also proof of pedigree as to families and helps the breeders to keep the strain of birds straight on the record.
R. 3. All birds banded with the American Singers Club, Inc. leg bands and registered through the National Secretary is further proof of ownership as the National Secretary must furnish the record to all show secretaries and judges where patronage is given.
R. 4. American Singer Patronage is given for American Singer closed bands, members only, registered with the National Secretary. All Birds must be owned, trained and exhibited by American Singer Member.
R. 5. American Singer bands can be obtained from the National Secretary, 25 bands on a string for $5.25, postage prepaid; strings will not be broken, but members can order as many strings as they need. Bands furnished only to members in good standing. NO MEMBERS ALLOWED TO SPLIT STRINGS WITH ANOTHER MEMBER.
R. 6. National Secretary will register leg band numbers on the back of each membership card from two to four years. If National Secretary is unable to register, REGISTRARS appointed by the Secretary will register.
R. 7. Show Secretary will receive member list with leg band numbers so registered before show.
R. 8. Leg band series numbers with year must be listed on all American Singer entry blanks. This information should be marked in plain view on closed cage tag attached to entry, or letters A.S. to show Specialty Club American Singer Patronage.
R. 9. No local club bands or personal closed bands will be eligible to win American Singer Patronage.

CHAPTER 4. TRAINING.

[New 1950] Most all birds entered in shows need training. Training is very important so that each exhibit will appear their best before Judges. Type birds must be trained to stage in position in their show cages. Rollers must be trained from birth to mature age to sing as soon as their song boxes are opened before a judge. American Singers must be trained not only to stage but to sing as well. This means that we must have a system of training that will dispel fear so our American Singer will stage correctly, and sing within ten minutes after they are moved from show bench to Judging room. Many birds in a judging room do not sing; they sit or stand on the perch in one position, scared to death. Others eat and drink water, while others fly about their cages wildly. The result is they go back to the show bench with N.S. (No Song) marked on their score sheets. Unless your birds are trained, it is a waste of money to exhibit them. The following is an easy method of training American Singer Canaries.
T. 1. All birds old and young, males and females should be in flight cages until after their moult.
T. 2. Training cages can be hung on a small door of the flight cages of males. Doors open out into these cages to enable birds to become accustomed to hopping in and out. This feature eliminates handling when song training begins, as birds learn to hop out the minute a cage is hung on a flight.
T. 3. When song is noticed in males, take the best in conformation and condition for separate training in the American Singer show cages or shelf cages.
T. 4. The back of one side should be shielded with cardboard or metal shield. This prevents birds from seeing one another.
T. 5. Take them out of the bird room into other rooms of the house. Set them where it is convenient for them to be taken care of where strangers and members of the family will pass by them many times a day.
T. 6. A tutor or old bird that has a good varied song can be placed with them. More than one old bird can be used.
T. 7. If 12 to 24 are trained at one time, it might be advisable to use a rack on castors holding all, for ease of moving. If only two or three are being trained at one time, a firm table or card table that is light will do.
T. 8. After two or three days, the birds should start to sing. Any birds having too loud a song, too many chops, not enough variety can be returned to the bird room to let others take their place.
T. 9. After a week in one position, the whole group can be moved to another room or to a different place in the same room. This should be continued until the birds will start to sing soon after they are moved. Let other members of the family help move them about. This dispels fear of strangers.
T. 10. Cleanliness is paramount. Fresh seed and water every day and cleaning cages at least three times a week. Treats and condition seed should be given.
T. 11. Bird records should be played and other musical instruments and radio should be used.
T. 12. Learn to judge your birds. Detect faults under conformation and Rendition. Only choose your best. This should be continued from at least October until show time.
T. 13. Try to select a variety of colors.16 When time comes to enter in the shows it is better to enter in 12 or more classes than all in one or two classes. (See Chapter 6 Classifications.)
T. 14. A singer is expected to sing within ten minutes after he is moved into the judging room. The judge usually allows from five to ten minutes after the class is in position and the birds quiet down before he starts to judge.17
T. 15. The singer must be a free singer with a full melodious song, pleasing to the ear with under six chop notes at one time in his song and plenty of variety- no repetition. The AMERICAN SINGER must be trained.
16Modern American Singers are no longer classed by color, hence choose your best singers without concern for color classification.
17Most modern Judges begin to judge without any waiting period because of demands on time.

CHAPTER 5. MODEL.

M. 1. Bird 53/4 inches long measured either from top of head to tip of tail, or tip of beak to tip of tail.
M. 2. Angle of Bird when not singing, between 35 to 45 degrees from vertical. Should not have the roller hoop when it stands in position when it sings.
M. 3. HEAD Rounded, not too much dome.
BEAK Medium.
EYE Round, well set.
NECK AND THROAT Full song expansion.
CARRIAGE Lively, alert, fearless.
SHOULDER Pronounced.
BACK Rounded, not too flat.
WINGS Medium.
BREAST Rounded and full.
THIGH Not much showing.
LEGS Medium.
TAIL Medium, close.
FEATHERS Tight.

Model adopted in 1943.

CHAPTER 6. STANDARD CLASSIFICATIONS.

The following STANDARD CLASSIFICATIONS should be used in all Show Catalogues that receive patronage trophies from the American Singers Club, Inc.
No other colors or classes of colors should be added. The two groups given below can either be contracted or expended depending on the number of entries guaranteed to a given show. 18
American Singer Judges are instructed to judge old birds first and then young birds.19 To carry out correct benching, old birds should be benched by themselves and then young birds. Following through on this system the numbering of old birds consecutively and then followed by young birds should be the rule. This is, however, contrary to the way most all other birds are numbered in every show catalogue. With American Singers the appearance of all old birds in a group and then young birds in their group would present a clearer picture to all exhibitors and the general public.
It is also advisable to use a uniform numbering system. If all shows would agree on a certain section number either 5 or 7 or 10 then numbers in all shows where American Singer Canaries are shown would all start the same. Example: Section 5 American Singers, Yellows would all be in class 501, Old Birds, 525, Young Birds.

C. 1. 50 to 150 entries. All males
Yellow male, Clear Ticked.
Buff male, Clear Ticked.
Yellow Green male, Variegated.
Buff Green male, Variegated.
Green, Self or foul.
Cinnamon, Self foul or Variegated.
Blue, Self or foul.
Blue White, Variegated.
Fawn, Self or foul.
Fawn, White, Variegated.
White, Clear or ticked.
Light Orange, Clear ticked or Variegated.
Orange Clear, Ticked or Variegated.
Deep Orange, Clear ticked or Variegated.
Any other color.

C. 2. 150 Entries and over. All males.
Yellow Clear.
Yellow Ticked.
Buff Clear.
Buff Ticked.
Yellow Green Variegated.
Buff Green Variegated.
Green Self or Foul.
Cinnamon, Self or Foul or Variegated.
Fawn Self or Foul.
Fawn White Variegated.
Blue Self or Foul.
Blue White Variegated.
White Clear or Ticked.
Light Orange Clear or Ticked.
Light Orange Variegated.
Orange Clear or Ticked.
Orange Variegated.
Deep Orange Clear or Ticked.
Deep Orange Variegated.
Any other color.

C. 3. Tune Whistlers, Hens and Novice Classes are Subsections of the American Singer Section and are judged by their own system of judging on our score sheet.
C. 4. Tune Whistlers judged by their variety and tunes they can whistle more than their conformation.
C. 5. Hens judged only for conformation and condition.
C. 6. Novice Sections judged the same as regular Singer classes.
18American Singers are no longer classed by color, all males now being classed as either young (unflighted- hatched in current year) or old (flighted).
19See JUDGING RULES, Chapter 10 for amendment to this rule.

CHAPTER 7. GLOSSARY.

G. 1. BLOOM-
Plumage that shines.
G. 2. BROAD TAIL-
Tail carried-loosely-wide.
G. 3. BROKEN GREEN-
Mixture of green with yellow or buff. Variegated.
G. 4. BUFF-
Refers to color, light yellow. Tips of webs of feathers white..
G. 5. CINNAMON-
Light reddish brown.
G. 6. CLEAN CUT-
Term to define a finely chiseled and harmonious outline. Not ragged at edges or with one color running into another.
G. 7. CLEAR-
Refers to color: Yellow, buff and white. No dark feathers showing. Also orange.
G. 8. COLOR FED-
Use of any food, vegetable dye, or color assist, before or during moult to change natural color of specimen- applies to Red Factor and American Singer.
G. 9. CONDITION-
Fullness of health, vigor and stamina, also applies to state of cleanliness of bird and cage.
G. 10. CONFORMATION-
Refers to both bird on score sheet and judging rules. Type- well proportioned body; good tight plumage: See MODEL. Faults are listed on score sheet and judging of same.
G. 11. CROSS FLIGHT OR CROSS WINGS-
Wings so carried that longer flight feathers cross each other at the tips, a fault under conformation. Usually inbred, very hard to eliminate..
G. 12. EVEN MARKED-
A clear bird may show 2, 4, or symmetrical marks: A 2 Pointer shows 2 dark marks to be covered with a dime. A 4 Pointer shows eyes and wings to be marked as in a 2 pointer, wings not more than 3 dark feathers in each wing. A 6 Pointer shows eyes, wings, and one dark feather marked on each side of tail. All rest of bird clear, no dark feathers showing.
G. 13. FAWN-
A light tan lighter than cinnamon, light brown.
G. 14. FINGER MOULT-
A practice of pulling out feathers to improve a birds appearance in order to compete at show. Judge can detect same. Fault. Poor practice.
G. 15. FISH TAIL-
Fault under conformation (F.T.) Very broad, rough tail with broad V at tip.
G. 16. FLAT HEAD-
(F.H.) Fault under conformation. Head very flat, no dome.
G. 17. FLIGHTED AND UNFLIGHTED-
Flighted birds who have been through a full moult, change of all feather namely one year or older. Unflighted birds- young birds under one year old who have been through the baby moult only losing or changing body feathers, not wing and tail.
G. 18. FREEDOM-
Willingness to sing, ease in starting and in performance in Song. Only found in a trained bird who has lost all fear of strangers. Ten full songs within 10 minutes on the judging bench.
G. 19. FOUL-
A bird with light feathers in wing flights or tail, usually referred to in greens, cinnamons and fawns.
G. 20. GREEN-
Refers to color of a dark bird, breast showing either yellow or green making a bronze effect, or buff green changing the effect to a lighter green.
G. 21. HEALTH-
Condition. A bird in perfect health.
G. 22. HEAVILY MARKED OR VARIEGATED-
A bird having more than one half of its plumage of any dark color.
G. 23. HOLLOW NECK-
(T.N.) see also Thin Neck. Fault under conformation. Too much indentation at back of neck between base of skull and shoulder.
G. 24. LIGHTLY VARIEGATED-
A bird having less than one half of its plumage of any dark color.
G. 25. MOULT, FALSE MOULT, QUICK MOULT-
MOULT occurs during warm months when bird loses part or all feathers naturally. FALSE MOULT occurs due to quick change of temperature or length of day in aviary or when bird is placed in draft. QUICK MOULT occurs when during warm months birds are kept unusually warm to force the loss of feathers fast. During all MOULTS temperature should be kept as even as possible. Special care and food with plenty of fresh water, seed and greens should be given every day.
G. 26. NOVICE-
A beginner or breeder or exhibitor who has not previously won a first prize in open class or three prizes in novice classes of four or more birds in a class in any show. In many shows the novice cannot compete in both open and novice classes in the same section.
G. 27. OVER SHOWN-
When a bird has been shown too often in one year without a chance to rest, shows effects of fatigue and exhausted vitality.
G. 28. QUALITY-
Term under RENDITION. Depth and richness of song notes, also applies to condition of feathers. Feathers should be soft and silky to touch, of fine texture instead of coarse, harsh and rough.
G. 29. RED FACTOR [New 1950]-
The breeding into a strain of regular American Singers the Siskin or any finch which will carry the red factor in a bird to change the color of plumage to orange and red. (See Breeding, Song and Judging rules.)
G. 30. RENDITION-
Term refers to song as a whole, the musical interpretation or presentation of song. Song should not be monotonous, either by a sustained note or notes, or through repetition. The more variety the better. (See SONG.)
G. 31. SELF-
Term applies to blue, green, fawn or cinnamon Plumage is unbroken by any other light color.
G. 32. SONG [New 1950]-
Refers to Freedom and Rendition of Bird. A musical sequence of notes and tours naturally given, not too loud or too soft- medium-pleasing to the average human ear; varied, full songs, no repetition of short tours or notes becoming monotonous. No overly sustained notes. In red factor American Singers the song will be more varied due to wild Siskin notes breaking into the natural American Singer Song. In all American Singer songs a balance of the songs of foundation birds must show neither too much roller nor too much border. If too much of either show, a bird will be faulted under rendition for value of song.
G. 33. STRENGTH-
Term under Rendition: Vigor shown in a strong song, not necessarily loud: power of endurance.
G. 34. THIN NECK-
(T.N.) Fault under conformation. Tapering very slim neck, hollow in back and no throat fullness.
G. 35. SNAKE HEAD-
Head that has no shape, no roundness, beak long. Whole effect looks like a snake head.
G. 36. ROLLER HOOP-
When singing male takes position head is stretched out and body curves with the tail curved under perch to complete an arc. Bird shows too much percentage of roller blood.
G. 37. THIGH-
Should be medium (see MODEL). If part of bird's upper leg is too long so that too much is showing. A fault under conformation.
G. 38. TICKED BIRD-
A bird that has one mark only that can be covered with a dime. This mark consists of dark feathers on a clear bird. Applies to yellow, buff and orange. If more dark markings show any place the bird is variegated.
G. 39. VARIEGATED-
A bird that has a ground color of yellow, buff, white, cinnamon, fawn, blue, green or orange that has dark feathers superimposed over the ground color. (See Light and Dark Variegated.)
G. 40. VARIETY-
Term under Rendition. A change in general song. Intermixture or succession of different tours and notes pleasing to the human ear.
G. 41. VIGOR-
Pep or energy showing physical strength.
G. 42. WHITE-
A color, no yellow except slightly buff tipped wings showing, no variegation or dark feathers.
G. 43. YELLOW-
A bright pure color resembling gold. The color between green and orange in the spectrum.

CHAPTER 8. EXHIBITORS' INSTRUCTIONS.

E. 1. Learn to judge; pick out your best birds for shows. Judges come from our members. Only breeders who breed our American Singer Canaries should be Judges. They know the song and study the type and structure of their birds.
E. 2. Be sure your show equipment is clean and ready at least two months before show. If painted cages are used, they should be prepared and painted during the summer months. That is why under Article XI Show Cages, we advise nickel and chrome cages only as it shows off our American Singer Canaries better than any other cage.
E. 3. Ask help of show officials in classifying your birds, but never seek advice from any elected Judge that will officiate at any show where you expect to enter birds. Do not ship your exhibits in care of any Judge to any show but always to the show secretary.
E. 4. Cage tags are usually fastened in lower left hand front corner on show cages in most shows. Where name tags are used, show officials should close tags before judging and open them after judging.
E. 5. No breeders' cards or distinctive marks or decorations of any kind are allowed on cages until prizes are awarded, meaning ribbons after judging.
E. 6. No exhibitor or person has the right to touch or move a cage or exhibit after it is entered in a show, only show officials.
E. 7. No exhibitor or person should be allowed in the judging room where his or her birds are being judged unless by permission.20 No exhibitor should act as steward where his or her birds are entered in classes.21
20Most American Singer shows currently permit and encourage fanciers to be present in the judging room.
21Stewards nowadays usually enter their birds at shows where they officiate.

CHAPTER 9. JUDGING SCHOOL OUTLINE

J.S. 1. Groups of members or Chapters may arrange meeting where birds can be brought for practice judging. These may be called Judging Schools to instruct and help new Judges and to instruct members how to judge their own birds so every exhibitor member can be sure of selecting his best birds for the show and understand more fully what is required of his birds in order to win.
J.S. 2. Instructor may appoint stewards to care for birds, just the same procedure that would take place at a regular show. The benching committee would bench the birds under regular classes, see that tags are in proper place, water and seed the exhibits, arrange all details. Stewards would serve the Judges or applicants who wish to judge.
J.S. 3. All applicants wishing to judge should signify desire and be awarded their classes to judge in turn, so in the end everyone would judge all classes.
J.S. 4. Where possible have one class to a room, but two or more applicants may judge the same class but should not compare notes during judging.
J.S. 5. Continue same as regular judging rules.
J.S. 6. After conclusion give your sheets to the instructor. Instructor will point out mistakes and differences on the sheets turned in.
J.S. 7. Breeders of American Singer Canaries should be judges at all shows as these breeders know the bird, song and conformation better than anyone else.
J.S. 8. To create interest, prizes could be awarded the same as at regular shows; to defray any expenses, entry fees could also be charged.
J.S. 9. All applicants can use their trial judging sheets to send in with their application for Judgeship or, if they wish, they may sit in with a regular Judge at a show and judge a class along with the regular Judge, using this score sheet to send in with their application.

CHAPTER 10. JUDGES' RULES

INTRODUCTION
J.R A. Judges are only supposed to judge two complete American Singer sections or equivalent in one calendar year. This means two shows judging all classes in young and old birds and sub-sections or four different shows judging Young Birds at two shows and Old Birds at the other two shows.
J.R. B. Judges are advised to inquire of show officials how many classes are to be judged to enable him or her to do justice to all entries and to determine how much the fee should be, based on the following paragraph:
J.R. C. It is estimated that to judge 22 classes it would take an average of ten hours. There would be some small classes that could be grouped together, but on the other hand there would be large classes that would have to be judged in two or three sections. It is easier and would do the birds justice not to judge more than ten or twelve birds at one time.22 These large classes therefore could be divided into sections and the BEST from the sections or divisions could be tallied according to their first scores to be first, second, third, fourth, and fifth through seventh for points and ribbons.23
The American Singer Class as it comes before the Judge shall not exceed nine, except in cases of emergency which will be approved only by the Judge on a case-by-case basis. [New 7/91] The American Singer Class as it comes before the Judge shall not have fewer than five birds except in cases of emergency, which will be approved only by the Judge on a case-by-case basis. [New 7/91]
J.R. C.1. [Amendment 1996] The ideal class size of American Singers as it comes before the judge shall be SEVEN. This may be extended to eight birds to facilitate the judging of a large show, but may be extended to nine only with the express permission of the Judge on a case-by-case basis. There shall never be more than one or two classes of nine birds in an entire show, and only in an emergency situation to correct: misplaced birds, overlooked birds, and traumatized birds all occurring under unpredictable situations. The reason for this limit is to reward the ideal American Singer Song which is "never too loud, harsh, or monotonous, but is of the right quality, strength and variety".
J.R. D. A separate room for judging should definitely be provided at all shows where American Singer Club, Inc. awards patronage. This room should be well lighted and warm where all exhibitors and public is barred. 24 Only Judges and stewards or show officials should be admitted on business. There should be quiet in the judging room. Absolutely no one passing through, no loud talking so the Judge can give his or her attention to the work. The members of the American Singers Club, Inc. or the Chapters should underwrite such a room for their own protection to be sure their birds receive an honest and fair judging.
J.R. E. If more than one Judge operates at a show, classes should be divided, one taking young and the other the old males. Both Judges should not operate in the same room.
J.R. F. There should never be more than one class in the judging room at one time unless the Judge is combining two or three small classes. It is poor practice to have half the section in the judging room or try to judge classes in the exhibition hall by covering up other classes. Justice cannot be given to the birds and dissatisfaction and protests will be the result.
J.R. G. A Judge may hold out an outstanding exhibit that is a free singer to start a class singing.25
J.R. H. When two or more Judges operate at a show, all must participate in selecting the best birds in the American Singer Section. All judges should compare their Score Sheets and select their top winners for specials from the final scores. In case of a tie, all should vote to break the tie, but in voting the song part of the Score should not be changed. Any change should be on conformation and condition. Tie birds should not be rejudged for Song.
J.R. I. All Judges should keep a record of all top winners whether he or she judged the birds or not, as a matter of record in case of protest, and for instruction to exhibitors after judging is finished.
J.R. J. At the close of the show, every Judge should send in his scores of all top winners of high scores from the best to include, the sixth best with breakdown of scores with faults, color, age, class, exhibitors names and leg band number to the National Secretary. At the conclusion of judging, the top six birds shall be caught (five for points, one for spare), and the band numbers read and verified against the judge's master band list as having been bred by the exhibitor. (This is presently done almost everywhere.) [New 1950]
J.R. K. Judges should follow closely the rules as set forth in the show catalogues of the show he or she is judging and abide by decisions passed by the show officials.
J.R. L. Judges should arrange their schedules to give time to mingle with exhibitors at shows to answer any questions that may arise and be of assistance to show officials until after points are counted.
J.R. 1. Be sure you have the show secretary's records of how many birds in each class before you start to judge, also a list of all prizes and specials you are to award.
J.R. 2. Judge no closer than 8 feet from the class. Remember you are a stranger to the birds, even if they have been well trained. You can avoid protests by giving them a chance to sing. SIT QUIETLY and observe, don't clap your hands, stomp your feet, point your finger or pencil at any class. Birds will never sing under these conditions. You may move cages to get them in order or for regrouping for outstanding singers, or to separate birds with closed leg bands from those who have none.
J.R. 3. See that no identifying marks are on cages. If name tags are used, insist tags are closed before you judge.
J.R. 4. After Stewards bring in a class, line up the cages in consecutive numbers to be sure the class is full according to the records furnished you by the show secretary.
J.R. 5. See if exhibits are in the correct class as listed in the show catalogue; if rules of the show prohibit reclassification, mark any that are in the wrong class (W.C.) and remove from class before you judge. Also mark your score sheet against cage number, those who have closed leg bands or those who have American Singer marked on their tags. you may separate them into a group by themselves or leave them in consecutive order as you wish, just as long as you keep track of their performance in song later in the judging. When you are checking, you can notice the conformation and condition of your class. Do this with every Class that comes before you. [New 1950]
J.R. 6. Time each class for the 20 minute period, noting the time when you begin and when you end. Note the time of the freedom period of 10 minutes. Some birds will begin sooner than others, but those who begin early after they come into the judging room will show training and more freedom than the ones who start late.
J.R. 7. After you have arranged your class, give the birds five or ten minutes to settle down before timing for freedom of song.26 Only full song counts one (1) point toward freedom on the score sheet, not short peeps and songs. (See S. 5. under Score). [New 1950]
J.R. 8. After the ten-minute period, mark your score sheet so you can tell the early singers from the late ones. Of course, those which do not sing would have nothing in their freedom column, but it would be disturbing to the rest of the class if you were to move the nonsingers from the rest. [New 1950]
J.R. 9. [New 1950] You can now check the songs and bear in mind to listen only to full-length songs and ask yourself the question: "How much is the song worth?" (See S. 7. Score Chapters.) Break the value of rendition into four stages: 60 to 50, 50 to 40, 40 to 30, 30 to 20. Before marking rendition, be sure to value the SONG according to definitions of song in Score Sheet Chapter. You are to check the standing of seven birds in classes of 10 or more, and all the standing of birds in classes under seven. This is for the Standard Point System used in all shows.
J.R. 10. [New 1950] Under RENDITION you have 60 points, but bear in mind the four stages above, you cannot take points from freedom to give more points in the rendition column.
J.R. 11. [New 1950] After marking your BEST songsters on your work sheet, you may have already looked over their CONFORMATION AND CONDITION, but if you haven't had a chance, check and be sure to mark the faults.
J.R. 12. [New 1950] Under conformation you have 20 points; check the faults as listed and compare with the model. Do the same under CONDITION; notice faults and mark accordingly. (See S. 8. and S. 9. Chapter on Score Sheet.) Tie scores are broken here under these two columns and nowhere else. Under conformation color does not count and remember condition of feather comes under CONDITION.
J.R. 13. [New 1950] After this is done on your work sheet, check for tie scores and change only under CONFORMATION and CONDITION. This is due to your value of Song under rendition as a bird must be an outstanding singer to earn a score between 60 and 50. (See S. 7. Score for this reason.)
J.R. 14. [New 1950] Follow the score sheet rules. Mark your work sheet with the order of ribbons and the cage tags on the cages in the order #1 through #7. Tie on your ribbons. While the stewards are busy taking out the class and bringing in another, check your time and prepare your next sheet for the new class.
J.R. 15. [New 1950] It is not wise to turn your sheets in to the show secretary until you have judged for the BEST BIRDS AND PLACED YOUR SPECIALS. You might have to change scores due to ties. Keep your work sheet handy in a notebook in case of protest or in case of two Judges or more operating to be able to check for best birds and the judging of specials. If the prizes are numbered, be sure to mark these numbers on your score sheet and also on the cage tags of the birds receiving same. Then make out a set of sheets for the show secretary and when all is finished, turn them in as soon as you can. As soon as you can, send your winners' scores through the 5th Best to the National Secretary as instructed in our rules.27 This must be done at once.
J.R. 16. [New 1950] As our rules state, only closed American Singer leg-banded birds can win our trophies; their scores should be (if it is earned) higher than birds with no bands or family bands. Therefore the value of all other birds without American Singer Bands should be less. (See song value under rendition of Score Sheet Chapter.)
J.R. 17. [New 1950] Withhold awarding class ribbons to birds who do not sing in any class if Show Committee is agreeable. If a bird has not earned a ribbon by not singing, it would be wrong to tie a First, Second or Third ribbon on his cage if his tag was marked No Song. (N.S.)
J.R. 18. In judging a show many exceptions will probably be put in practice. If there is any question, call on the Show Manager to help you over any difficult problem and give him time to call a meeting of some of his committee to give you their decision.
J.R. 19. [New 7/91] The judging order of classes shall be determined only by the Judge himself drawing classes from a hat, and not more than one hour prior to the start of judging.
J.R. 20. [New 7/91] Since American Singer males, both flighted and unflighted, compete for the same prizes and points, no singer, either young or old, shall be given preference as to time of day, except as the fates decree through random drawing, with both old and young classes placed in the same hat. Individual classes shall still consist, however, only of all old or all young birds.
J.R. 21. [New 7/91] All awards of medallions and points shall be awarded on the basis of the number of entries for the show being judged that day. The Judge will present awards based on the existing schedule for awards and points, with the exception being that the National Cage-Bird Show will receive maximum awards regardless of the number of American Singers being shown.
J.R. 22. [Amendment 1996] American Singer males shall receive no preference as to location as they come before the Judge, but shall be "Randomly Staged" during their judging in this manner: The numbered slot of each bird shall be drawn from a hat prior to entering the judging room. Silver-colored end plates shall be positioned at the ends of the class as needed and silver-colored cardboard, plywood, or metal dividers no more than 1/2 inch taller nor 1/2 inch wider than the largest cage shall be placed between cages to keep competing males from seeing each other.
22The modern rule now stipulates "no more than nine American Singers in one class except with the express permission of the judge on a case-by-case basis".
23Points are now awarded only through fifth place, depending upon the number of American Singers in the show.
24Exhibitors and well-behaved public are encouraged to enter the judging room nowadays.
25Not generally practiced nowadays.
26Singers are not given much time at modern shows to settle down in the Judging Room because of time pressure (more birds). Many shows will "air" (unsheet) males five to ten minutes out in the showhall before they are to see the judge so they can warm up to sing.
27Judges are now required to send in six highest scores to National Secretary.

Sample American Singers Club, Inc. Score Sheet furnished free of charge wherever Patronage is given and Judges abide by Rules and Regulations.

CHAPTER 11. 100 POINT SCORE SHEET

(See Score Sheet Illustrated on opposite Page)

S. 1. Score sheet should be made out in full. Fill in class number with number in class. Note the time at the beginning and and at top of sheet. Fill in Judge's name in space provided.
S. 2. (See note at bottom of score sheet.) If class has 20 or more entries, divide your class for judging by marking A. against odd numbered cages and B against even numbered cages. These large classes should be judged in two sections and their scores should be combined before turning in to show secretary.28
S. 3. In the column to the right of the sheet the Judge will mark in the prize or ribbon standing after judging is finished with each class, namely, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, under the heading prizes. It is best to mark all your winners Best, 2nd Best etc. with specials at the bottom denoting the number of cage.
S. 4. In the left hand margin or binding margin against each cage number mark all those with American Singer on their tags or use the initials C.B. (Closed bands) so you will notice these birds particularly in their whole performance.
S. 5. First section SONG 70 POINTS divided into FREEDOM 10 POINTS and RENDITION 60 POINTS. Although SONG is here taken as a whole, no POINTS can be transferred from freedom to rendition as each must stand by itself. In totaling a score, all points in all score columns must be added up to arrive at a total. The breakdown of the score really tells a better story than points transferred from one column to another. [New 1950]
S. 6. FREEDOM. 10 POINTS. Every time a bird sings a full song during the first ten minutes, Judge scores one (1) point. If he sings more than 10 times he still gets only 10 points. If a bird does not sing until late in the judging period, he is not a FREE singer, but still can be scored in the Freedom Column though his song value wouldn't necessarily be quite as high as a bird having more freedom. If a bird does not sing at all during the judging period (N.S.) NO SONG is marked in the freedom column. Bird forfeits the whole total 70 points under song. [New 1950]
S. 7. RENDITION 60 POINTS. This means SONG itself. Song of the AMERICAN SINGER should have just the right amount of blending of roller and border to be pleasing to the ear, neither too loud, harsh or monotonous, of the right quality, strength and variety, without any more than 6 chop notes in his song.
THIS IS WHAT WE CALL VALUE. Break the 60 points into four Stages: FIRST 60 to 50 POINTS, depending on faults under rendition as to quality, value and song and if he has 10 under freedom; SECOND 50 to 40 if he has one fault under rendition and has 7 to 10 in his freedom column. THIRD 40 to 30 if he has two faults under rendition he still may have 7 to 10 under freedom but still he has either too much roller or too much border in his song, lacking any one of the three major faults, quality, variety or strength. FOURTH 30 to 20 one to 7 full songs with all three faults. With this grouping, a judge can easily judge the song without taking off a certain number of points under each fault. Freedom here does play a part in the total song score but FREEDOM is very important as it shows how a bird has been trained and how well a breeder has selected his or her show specimen. [New 1950]
S. 8. CONFORMATION 20 POINTS. This means TYPE compared to our MODEL. Faults on the score sheet are not the only to be considered. If the bird is not up to the MODEL in length and size through the breast, also length of beak, set of the eyes, condition of the toes and feet, in fact anything contrary to the MODEL, points may be deducted. The score sheet states 4 points off for each fault listed as a maximum but it all depends on how bad the fault is before points are deducted. When points are deducted, mark the key Letters in the fault column with either 1-2-3 or 4 for each fault. Bear in mind the other faults mentioned above, and take off the same for them. Flat head (F.H.); thin neck (T.N.); cross wings (C.W.); thigh (T.); fish tail (F.T.). Rarely one would find a bird with all five faults or more, so the score in this column would not fall much below 15. Color does not enter into scoring, but the bird must have a well proportioned body and GOOD PLUMAGE. THIS IS THE COLUMN WHERE TIES ARE BROKEN AND WHERE YOU WILL CHANGE YOUR SCORE IF NECESSARY. [New 1950]
S. 9. CONDITION 10 POINTS. Faults and score columns are provided in this section. Minus signs should be placed before all faults and deducted from total of 10 points. Faults should be keyed for health, vigor and cleanliness with maximum of 2 points for each. Condition of cage should also be noted such as one perch in a cage where there should be two perches, paper on the bottom of the cage,29 soiled seed and water cups as well as cage and bird. Very few birds would have all faults, so score should never be lower than 5 points and no birds condition should be marked 9 points if a bird should have 10 if everything is spotless. Soiled glass cups are the worst offenders. With chrome or nickel cages being used, it is easy to clean them and keep them shiny. If perches are worn, they should be replaced with new ones. [New 1950]
S. 10. GRAND TOTAL COLUMN should have recorded TOTAL SCORE showing total all points deducted. Check your Totals and be SURE YOU ARE RIGHT.
S. 11. Remember if TIE SCORES are found in top-scoring birds, deduct only in conformation and condition, no other place.
S. 12. No rejudging of best birds. First score as marked by Judge stands.
S. 13. Column on the right marked POINTS is for marking the points score for points prizes. The Judge may mark these in if requested by show officials to help the show secretary.
Point prizes are counted and awarded as follows.
Prize 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Points 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
This is also used in classes below 7 or more entries. In classes of 6 birds, 1st counts 6 Points, 5 entries 1st counts 5 Points, 4 entries 1st counts 4 Points and so down. 30
S. 14. Show rules vary with shows; usually 4th prize ribbons are awarded to 10 entries or more in a class; 3rd prize ribbons 7 entries or more. Only 1st and 2nd under 7 entries.31
S. 15. It is not the exhibitor's or show officials' fault if only one to five entries are in a class. Judge should use his or her discretion in judging small classes by penalizing entries only in case of No Song in awarding ribbons where there is no competition and where none of the birds sing or their song value is nil, by that is meant, not an American Singer Song. In cases such as this Judge should seek advice from show officials in awarding ribbons.
S. 16. Novice Classes Subsection of the American Singer Section: The males should be judged the same as in open classes, but prizes should only be awarded as listed for Novice. No prizes in open competition should be given to novice. [New 1950]32
S. 17. If any show should have classes for females (Hens as a subsection, the judging score would be 50 Points: 35 points for conformation and 15 points for condition. These hens also should have closed leg bands. Hens without bands should not score anywhere as high as hens with them. [New 1950]
S. 18. All top-scoring birds in shows, Best of Breed through 5th Best American Singer closed banded registered, can claim their Grand Champion points by sending a full description of their winners to the National Secretary. Every member exhibitor must have one BEST OF BREED WIN on the bird in question before claiming a Grand Championship for the bird. Full description must tally with the Judge's return to the National Secretary and must include Breakdown of the score, color, class, cage number, leg band number, age of bird and name of Judge.
The GRAND CHAMPION POINTS are awarded at shows where 151 male American Singers are exhibited as follows for MALES ONLY; BEST 6 points, 2nd best 5 points, 3rd Best 4 points, 4th Best 3 points, 5th Best 2 points.33
These points will be awarded for every show where patronage is given and where official Judges operate to all winners regardless of the number of trophies sent to a show. When a male has accumulated 20 points, a GRAND CHAMPION CERTIFICATE will be awarded his owner. Owner can then advertise his or her strain as: GRAND CHAMPION REGISTERED AMERICAN SINGER CANARIES.
28The modern rule now stipulates "no more than nine American Singers in one class except with the express permission of the Judge on a case-by-case basis."
29White paper is now required on show cage bottoms.
30This schedule for points no longer applies. See Article IX, Sec. 1. for new schedule of awards and points.
31Number of class ribbons awarded varies between shows; three class ribbons most common.
32Currently no birds are exhibited in Novice classes anywhere, though first-year fancier awards are often placed at shows in open classes to beginning fanciers' birds.
33A champion is declared at twenty points, providing the bird has one best-in-show win. See Article IX for detailed points schedule.

CHAPTER 12. REGISTERED AMERICAN SINGER CANARIES.

R.A.S. 1. A Registered American Singer Canary is a canary male or female who is bred by the American Singers Club, Inc. plan as explained in Chapter 1, and accompanying Chart. The bird must be banded with the American Singer closed aluminum series leg band registered with the National Secretary. This is for American Singers Club, Inc. MEMBERS ONLY in good standing, where dues are paid at the same time when bands are ordered. The female can only be shown in hen classes in a subsection and can never win in competition with the male of American Singers Club, Inc. prizes. [New 1950]
R.A.S. 2. The American Singers Club, Inc. patronage is given with the above bands to Members only of the American Singers Club, Inc. in good standing, males only, any age. No other local club bands or personal bands will be recognized, as it is impossible in a National Specialty Club to check all bands used. Male birds must be BRED, RAISED, TRAINED and EXHIBITED by MEMBER ONLY. No transfers will be allowed. [New 1950]
R.A.S. 3. If member requires pedigree declaration, member may send pedigree of any bird to the National Secretary for verification of leg band numbers for the Secretary's signature as a proof that the birds are bred by the American Singers Club, Inc. plan at a charge of ten cents a bird. [New 1950]
R.A.S. 4. American Singers Club, Inc. members are not charged extra for registration of the American Singer leg bands they purchase as their numbers are not only registered in the books of the National Secretary but on the backs of their membership cards signed either by the National Secretary or her Registrars; also CHECK LISTS of all the members and their leg band numbers are sent to all local club secretaries where American Singers Club, Inc. send their Awards for the use of these Secretaries in awarding the prizes to the correct exhibitors.34 [New 1950]
34Band registrations are now sent only to American Singer Club Judges.

CHAPTER 13- RED FACTOR AMERICAN SINGER CANARIES

R.F.A.S. 1. The RED FACTOR AMERICAN SINGER as explained in Chapter 1. 7-I is a canary consisting of BORDER ROLLER SISKIN ancestry bred by the American Singers Club, Inc. plan. Whether the SISKIN is bred in after the American Singer Canary is in its third, fourth, or fifth year or whether the member uses a Red Factor roller, with a border or a Red Factor border with a roller makes no difference. [New 1950]
R.F.A.S. 2. The fact the American Singer Club, Inc. plan of control breeding is being used and records are kept to prove the plan is being carried out is proof that the bird is a Red Factor American Singer.
R.F.A.S. 3. The Red Factor American Singer has to be bred to our MODEL as to conformation (Type) and must be bred true to the three breeds combined. Observing other Red Factor birds bred for color and not for song and conformation to the American Singers Club, Inc. Standard, one will notice the difference. No other Red Factor bird bred only for color can be judged under our rules.
R.F.A.S. 4. The song of the Red Factor American Singer bird bred by the American Singers Club, Inc. plan will have a very different song than our regular American Singer birds, and vastly different from any Red Factor American Singer bird bred for color. The song of our Red Factor American Singer bird will have a blending and variety of three birds; still, our song definition under rendition for value must apply, and many of these birds will have the same chance to win in our standard classifications as the regular colors.
R.F.A.S. 5. The Red Factor American Singer bird will need more care in breeding to bring up the size for conformation as well as more training to eliminate fear.
R.F.A.S. 6. In CLASSIFICATIONS, Chapter 6, the Red Factor American Singer has only three color classes. Light Orange, similar to 917 Yellow Ochre Prismacolor Pencils; Orange, similar to 918 Orange Prismacolor pencils, Deep Orange, a shade deeper than 918 between 918 and 921 Vermilion Red Prismacolor. These colors in the Eagle Turquoise colored pencils are standard and known everywhere in all Stationery and Art Stores. Their colors are true and constant and match the requirements of artist, Commercial Art taught in all schools as they match the other colors of the same name in all high grade lines of water and oil colors of Windsor & Newton, Opri Oil Colors by Talens and other leading makes. The Classifications must be made simple so one not versed in Color can easily classify their birds. No other tints of colors between these three colors are needed. if more were used the defining line between colored would be so confusing it would be difficult for breeders to classify their birds for show. Each breeder sees color with different eyes, no one sees alike. When Prismacolor is used every member can check their birds and know just what color everyone is talking about.
R.F.A.S. 7. Members can breed to these colors and breed in the RED FACTOR toward the color breeder's dream of producing a Red Canary just as easily in our club as in a color breeders club even if we do not judge for color. Members will have a beautiful Type Bird with a beautiful song as a result. Our breeding Plan is a definite plan with a Standard Model to breed to, and after a few years of breeding, a breeder will find the bird breeds true to type, song and color, if bred correctly.
R.F.A.S. 8. When it is necessary to put in classes for Reds, the following is a suggestion: Light Red, matching the 921 Vermilion Red Prismacolor. Red, matching 922 Scarlet Red Prismacolor and Deep Red matching 924 Crimson Red Prismacolor. There are other colors of Red in the Prismacolor line, 923 Scarlet Lake that falls between 922 Scarlet Red and 924 Crimson Red; then 925 Crimson Lake that is deeper than 924 Crimson Red. These pencils can be bought for a dime in any of the stores mentioned above.
R.F.A.S. 9. It makes a difference if any of these colors were used on a different colored ground or background of paper other than white. If a Yellow sheet or Buff Sheet were used to try out these colors, the effect would change. Such is the case in birds. Birds with a white ground or base would have the truest color for matching these colors in the pencils, but if a yellow ground base bird or a buff ground bird were used, these same orange and red so named colors would have an entirely different hue or shade. So in classifying your birds for show, any of these ground based birds, white, buff, or yellow would still be classed under the colors given in our Classifications.
R.F.A.S. 10. Many American Singer Official Judges are asked to judge the Red Factor colorbred singers. It is permissible, but these birds cannot be judged for song by our points system on our scoresheet. Our constitution and our Rules state that only American Singers can be judged on our scoresheet, birds that are bred to our plan by our members, birds having our Closed bands. Red Factor colorbreds should be judged by the color bred judge and a scoresheet that allows scoring for song under their rules should be inserted. If American Singer Judges are hired to judge the Red Factor colorbred singers, the judging is done only by the effect of the Song as the Judge hears.35
35Red factor American Singers are currently not classified by color but are exhibited in the same generalized classes as all other colors.

CHAPTER 14- TUNE WHISTLERS- UNUSUAL BIRDS.

T.W. 1. TUNE WHISTLERS are mentioned in our Classification as a subsection of the American Singer Section. These birds have the inbred ability through training of whistling a tune or part of more than one tune along with their natural song.
T.W. 2. These birds come from the roller side of the American Singer Strain as the roller has the power of imitating melodies and tunes played to them over and over until their performance is nearly perfect.
T.W. 3. They are trained while young and usually with records played over and over again. Not all birds have this ability. Other birds besides the canary are birds of the Grackle family such as Starlings and Mynahs. These birds have the ability of talking the same as Parrots and Budgerigars (Shell Parakeets).
T.W. 4. In judging these birds in the subsection, a judge of American Singers does not score the Whistlers' song on the American Singer Scoresheet, but listens and decides how well each bird performs his own ability to sing what he has been taught, and how perfectly he renders the song he whistles.
T.W. 5. His conformation and condition are also noticed as this also is considered in awarding ribbons and prizes.
T.W. 6. The whistler or unusual bird should not be entered in the regular classes of the Singer Section because his song and ability is in a class by itself and should be judged accordingly. [New 1950]

MEMBERS' AIDS.

Copies of the American Singers Club, Inc. MODEL can be obtained from the National Secretary for the cost of 15 cents each postage prepaid. These are printed in black and white on heavy parchment suitable for framing, size 8 1/2 x 11 inches.
Electros mounted on wood (See Illustration) are 3/4 of an inch by one inch and can be used on member's stationery or business cards. The price is subject to change without notice due to the Engravers Charge. The last price in 1950 was $2.50 cost of postage prepaid and can be ordered from the National Secretary. [Currently not available.]
Explanation: Many members may have the first cut of the American singer old model before the shield. Due to new Government regulations, this is now outlawed as the Government advises the Officers nothing can be shown in front of a U.S. shield or flag.
Members are requested to get their local printers to furnish them with their own stationery, envelopes, guarantees and business cards as under our Charter we are forbidden as a club to sell anything at a profit as we are a nonprofit organization and do not have to make a federal return on our expenses.
A Breeder who has achieved ten Bests in Show will be presented an award, declaring that breeder a "MASTER BREEDER" of American Singer Canaries. [New 1990]
Any member who has bred and exhibited American Singers, with ten years of active participation in chapters, shows and clubs, will be honored with a certificate, recognizing years of dedication. [New 1990]38
Dues are currently $8.00 per member, $10.00 per dual membership (two people ordering joint ownership of one set of closed bands).
Bands cannot be mailed out until after January 1st. Keep this in mind should you set up your hens in November/December.
Broken down scores of all singers are copied for the benefit of the exhibitor on the scoresheet he takes home.
38As of 1991, a Masters Breeder's pin, enamel on metal is awarded; the ten-year fancier is awarded a ceramic pin for years of service. No charge for pins to qualified members.

First Printing 1943. Second Printing 1945. Third Printing 1950. Fourth Printing 1968. Fifth Printing 1992.
Edited and printed by: Judy Snider, Jessie Durkin & Bill Summers.